Organic chemistry is a science that studies carbon compounds with other elements (organic compounds), as well as the laws of their transformations. Organic chemistry arose in the process of studying those substances that were extracted from plant and animal organisms, consisting mainly of organic compounds. This subject is rather difficult to study and you need to know where to find answers to each mcq in organic chemistry.
Basic Organic Chemistry Questions and Answers
- When did the formation of organic chemistry occur? Formation of organic chemistry as an independent science occurred in the middle of the 19th century, when, thanks to the efforts of chemistry scientists, ideas about the structure of organic compounds began to form. The most notable role was played by the works of E. Frankland (defined the concept of valency), F. Kekule (established the quadrivalence of carbon and the structure of benzene), and A. Cooper (proposed symbol of the valence line connecting atoms in the depiction of structural formulas).
- Who formulated the idea of the nature of the chemical bond in organic compounds? G. Lewis first formulated the idea of the nature of the chemical bond in organic compounds, suggesting that atoms in a molecule are connected with the help of electrons: a pair of generalized electrons creates a simple bond, and two or three pairs form, respectively, a double and triple bond. Considering the distribution of electron density in molecules (for example, its displacement under the influence of electronegative atoms O, Cl, etc.), chemists could explain the reactivity of many compounds, i.e. the possibility of their participation in those or other reactions.
- How did quantum chemistry appear? Consideration of the properties of an electron, determined by quantum mechanics, led to the development of quantum chemistry, using the ideas of molecular orbitals. Now quantum chemistry, which has shown its predictive power on many examples, successfully cooperates with experimental organic chemistry.
- What is the main feature of organic chemistry? The main feature of organic chemistry is the exceptional variety of compounds that arise due to the ability of carbon atoms to bond with each other in virtually unlimited quantities, forming molecules in the form of chains and cycles. The phenomenon of isomerism, through which molecules having the same composition can have different structures, additionally increases the variety of organic compounds. Now more than 10 million organic compounds are known, and their number annually increases by 200-300 thousand.
- What are aliphatic hydrocarbons? Aliphatic hydrocarbons are linear or branched chains and do not contain cyclic fragments – they form two large groups. Limit or saturated hydrocarbons (so named because they cannot attach anything) are chains of carbon atoms connected by simple bonds and surrounded by hydrogen atoms.
- What are the main sources of saturated hydrocarbons? The main sources of saturated hydrocarbons are oil and natural gas. The reactivity of saturated hydrocarbons is very low; they can react only with the most aggressive substances, for example, with halogens or with nitric acid. High temperature exposure in the presence of oxygen leads to their complete combustion to CO2 and water, which makes it possible to effectively use them as gaseous (methane-propane) or liquid motor fuel (octane).
- What are variants of cycle connection? Variants of cycle connection in alicyclic compounds are spirocycles, bicycles and skeletons. In the name of spiro and bicyclic compounds, one indicates that aliphatic hydrocarbon, which contains the same total number of carbon atoms. In adamantane, the atoms are arranged in the same way as in the crystal lattice of a diamond, which determined its name.
- What is the main feature of benzene cycles? For benzene cycles, the addition reactions are not characteristic, they take place with great difficulty and under stringent conditions, and the most typical for them are substitution reactions of hydrogen atoms.
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